Inference refers to the broad suite of data analysis techniques that aim to deduce properties about the probability distributions underlying phenomena of interest.
Edit me

What is Statistical Inference?

From Wikipedia-

Statistical inference is the process of using data analysis to deduce properties of an underlying distribution of probability.[1] Inferential statistical analysis infers properties of a population, for example by testing hypotheses and deriving estimates. It is assumed that the observed data set is sampled from a larger population.